INDEX: [General History] [Anthologies] [Lesbian: General] [Pre-Modern Lesbian] [Modern Lesbian] [Literary History] [Language] [Art & Film] [Theory] [Famous Homosexuals] [Anthropology] [Ancient] [Medieval] [Early Modern] [Renaissance] [European] [English Early Modern] [English Modern] [German] [Dutch] [French] [Spain & Portugal] [Pre-Modern American] [Modern American] [Middle East] [Latin America] [Africa] [Colonial and Non-European Updated 20 February 2012

General "Oriental"

Edwardes, Allen
Jewel in the Lotus. New York: Julian, 1959. Several modern reprints.
Yamauchi, Edwin M.
"Cultic prostitution: A case study in cultural diffusion", in H. A. Hoffner, Jr. (ed.), Orient and Occident. Kevelaer, Netherlands: Butzon & Bercker, 1973, pp. 213-22.


Wu Cuncun
Homoerotic Sensibilities in Late Imperial China (RoutledgeCurzon, 2004).
Hinsch, Bret
Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China. Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1990.
Ng, Vivien W.
"Homosexuality and the state in late Imperial China", in Duberman et al., Hidden from History (1989), pp. 76-89.
Ruan, Fang-fu, and Yung-mei Tsai
"Male homosexuality in the traditional Chinese literature", Journal of Homosexuality 14, nos. 3-4 (1987), pp. 21-33.
Sommer, Matthew H.
"The Penetrated Male in Late Imperial China: Judicial Constructions and Social Stigma", Modern China 23 (2), 1997.
Vitiello, Giovanni
"The Dragon's Whim: Ming and Qing homoerotic tales from The Cut Sleeve", T'oung Pao: Revue internationale de sinologie, 78 (1992): 341-72.
Vitiello, Giovanni
"Exemplary sodomites: Male homosexuality in late Ming fiction", Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1994.
Vitiello, Giovanni
The Libertine's Friend: Homosexuality and Masculinity in Late Imperial China, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. Review on Histsex.
Xiaomingxiong (Ng Siu-ming)
Zhongguo tongxingai shilu [History of Homosexuality in China]. Hong Kong: Pink Triangle Press, 1984; rev. ed. 1997.


Jaffrey, Zia
The Invisibles: Tale of the Eunuchs of India. Phoenix, 1998.
Nanda, Serena
"Hijras as neither man nor woman", in Abelove et al., The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader (1993), 542-52.
Nanda, Serena
Neither Man Nor Woman: The Hijras of India. 2nd edn. Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1999.
Sweet, Michael and Zwilling, Leonard
"The first medicalization: The taxonomy and etiology of queerness in classical Indian medicine", Journal of the History of Sexuality, 3, 4 (1993), 590-697.
Sweet, Michael and Zwilling, Leonard
"`Like a city ablaze': The third sex and the creation of sexuality in Jain religious literature", Journal of the History of Sexuality, 6, 3 (1996), 359-84.
Thadani, Giti
Sakhiyani: Lesbian Desire in Ancient and Modern India. London: Cassell, 1996.
Vanita, Ruth, translator and editor
Chocolate, and Other Writings on Male-Male Desire by Pandey Bechan Sharma 'Ugra' (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006)
The first public debate on homosexuality in modern India occurred in the 1920s, in the thick of the movement for national independence. It was sparked off by a collection of Hindi short stories entitled Chocolate (1927), by Hindi nationalist writer Pandey Bechan Sharma, better known by his pen-name ‘Ugra’ (extreme). The stories created such an uproar that almost every major public figure, from Premchand to Gandhi, joined in the debate. This first-ever English translation of Ugra’s work raises issues as salient today as eight decades ago: the interpretation of text, the role of fiction in relation to society, and the morality of same-sex erotic relationships. Ugra’s writings provide a window on nationalist constructions of Indian identity, especially in relation to ideas of India’s past; of gender, masculinity, and sexuality; and of Hindu-Muslim and Indian-foreign relations. Many of the prejudices and ideas bandied about in the 1920s still hold centre stage, and resurface in debates about sexuality, obscenity, censorship, and the civil rights of gay people. In her introduction, Ruth Vanita, who has extensively studied the pre-modern and modern history of same-sex relationships in India, discusses the book’s ambivalent portrayal of homosexuality and the debate it sparked off among Hindi littérateurs and nationalists.
Vanita, Ruth
Love’s Rite: Same-Sex Marriage in India and the West (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).
Love’s Rite is the first book to examine same-sex weddings and same-sex couple suicides in India over the last two decades, discussing these phenomena in the context of the international debate on gay marriage, and in the context of past and present Indian and Euro-American cultural representations of same-sex union, from fourteenth-century narratives about co-wives who miraculously produce a child together to nineteenth-century depictions of ritualized unions between women. Love’s Rite brings a fresh perspective to the gay marriage debate, suggesting that same-sex marriage dwells not at the margins of society but at the heart of culture.


Hawkins, Joseph R.
"Japan's journey into homophobia", Gay and Lesbian Review, 7.1 (2000): 36-8.
Ihara Saikaku
The Great Mirror of Male Love, trans. with introd. Paul Gordon Schalow. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990.
Leupp, Gary P.
Male Colors: Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan. University of California Press, 1996.
Miller, Stephen D. (ed.)
Partings At Dawn: An Anthology of Japanese Gay Literature. San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press, 1996.
Minakata Kumagusu and Iwata Jun'ichi
"Morning fog (correspondence on gay lifestyles", trans. William F. Sibley, in Miller, Partings At Dawn (1996), pp. 135-71.
Pflugfelder, Gregory M.
Cartographies of Desire: Male-male Sexuality in Japanese Discourse, 1600-1950. University of California Press, 1999.
Schalow, Paul Gordon
"Introduction", in Miller, Partings At Dawn (1996), pp. 11-19.
Schalow, Paul Gordon
"The Invention of a Literary Tradition of Male Love", in Miller, Partings At Dawn (1996), pp. 97-102.
Schalow, Paul Gordon
"Kukai and the tradition of male love in Japanese Buddhism", in J. I. Cabezón (ed.), Buddhism, Sexuality, and Gender. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992, pp. 216-30.
Schalow, Paul Gordon
"Male love in early modern Japan: a literary depiction of the 'youth'", in Duberman et al., Hidden from History, 1989, pp. 118-28.
Tsuneo Watanabe and Jun'ichi Iwata
The Love of the Samurai: A Thousand Years of Japanese Homosexuality, trans. D.R. Roberts. London: GMP, 1989.


Jackson, Peter A.
Dear Uncle Go: Male Homosexuality in Thailand. Floating Lotus Books, 1996.

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