The Gay Love Letters of Marsilio Ficino
Excerpts from My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters through the Centuries (1998), Edited by Rictor Norton
Marsilio Ficino (1433–99) was the most powerful intellectual inspiration of the Renaissance, and his reconciliation of Classical with Christian ideals transformed philosophy, literature, and even painting for the following centuries. His teachings at the Platonic Academy had a wide-ranging influence upon artists such as Michelangelo and Raphael (in fact he directed the painting of Botticelli’s Primavera), while his translation of the complete works of Plato established the humanist basis of modern philosophy. This philosopher, scholar, doctor, musician and priest was not a dour "academic"; he was a vegetarian but enjoyed fine wine; he dressed modestly but enjoyed the visual arts; he preached but also played the lyre and sang Orphic hymns. Ficino’s letters were published in Latin in 1492, and in an Italian translation, probably by Ficino himself, in 1495. Those addressed to the young and handsome Giovanni Cavalcanti (1444–1509) are nothing less than ardent love letters. Whether or not the mantle of philosophy ever covered both men in bed is impossible to determine. After Ficino's death there were many rumours to that effect among his contemporaries, and his follower Benedetto Varchi was openly accused of being a sodomite. Ficino in one letter acknowledged that one can have "too great a love for the body, [but] that is not strange either, since the body is the companion and child of the soul. . . . the best hope is to remember that God understands how difficult and dangerous is the province which he has given us to live in and govern." Cavalcanti was the son of a Florentine nobleman, who went on to become a statesman and diplomat. Ficino loved his pupil from a very early age, and they lived together for many years at the villa at Careggio, given to Ficino by Cosimo de’ Medici, where he supervised his Platonic Academy. Most of Ficino’s works were written with Giovanni at his side, solacing him during periods of black melancholy, and his most important work De Amore is dedicated to his protégé. This is a commentary on Plato’s Symposium within a framework in which members of Ficino’s Academy read aloud and analyze the speeches of Plato’s characters; Cavalcanti took the speeches of Phaedrus, the archetypal beloved in the canon of amor Socraticus, while the adolescent poet of the Academy, Carlo Marsuppini, played the part of the effeminate homosexual apologist Agathon. Ficino’s translation (the first complete translation in any language) of Plato’s Phaedrus (which was discovered in a Byzantine manuscript in 1423) was responsible for creating "platonic love", a term which Ficino coined, which became a turning point in the history of love in the modern western world. He combined Neoplatonic and Christian ideals with images and phrases from Provençal and Tuscan love lyrics, which reestablished that amor was both source and goal of amicitia. Through the power of the god of love (Jupiter as well as the Christian God, for Ficino was also a student of Hermetic mysticism and astrology), lover and beloved are transformed into one another: he who gives himself unreservedly to his beloved ceases to be himself and becomes his beloved. In order to foster a loving community of friends, Ficino deliberately elaborated the genre of the love letter as the manifest sign of love, and encouraged members of the Academy to exchange "epistola amatoria" with one another. Within a generation after his death platonic love originally exclusive to male-to-male relations encouraged by Ficino’s cult of friendship was appropriated by the heterosexual hegemony under the name of "courtly love". Various conventional formulae were developed, which can be seen in the love letters Ficino received from his one-time pupil Lorenzo de’ Medici, but no one has ever disputed that the letters to Cavalcanti whom Ficino addressed as "Giovanni amico mio perfettissimo" reveal genuine personal sentiment (seen as a "ridiculous attachment" by most classical linguists and historians). Most of the letters cannot be dated, for they were published in a "philosophical" rather than chronological order, but most of those to Cavalcanti were written during 1473–4 when they were separated for a short period.
MARSILIO FICINO TO GIOVANNI CAVALCANTI
May 5, 1473
SOURCE: Della Divine Lettere del Gran Marsilio Ficino, tradotte per M. Felice, 2 vols (Venice: Gabriel Giolito de' Ferrari, 1563), English translation by Rictor Norton.
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