A Critique of Social Constructionism and Postmodern Queer Theory by Rictor Norton


In the text, the abbreviation EH refers to articles in the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, ed. Wayne R. Dynes (Chicago and London: St James Press, 1990).

Abelove, Henry, Barale, Michèle Aina, and Halperin, David M. (eds) (1993) The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader. New York and London: Routledge.

Aldrich, Robert (1993) The Seduction of the Mediterranean. London: Routledge.

Allen, Paula Gunn (1989) ‘Lesbians in American Indian cultures’, in Duberman et al., Hidden from History, pp. 106-17.

The Alyson Almanac: A Treasury of Information for the Gay and Lesbian Community (1989, 1990) Boston: Alyson.

Amory, Richard (1976) ‘Crypto-Gay’, Gay News, 98, 19.

Arthur, Gavin (1991) ‘The gay succession’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, 323-5.

Austen, Roger (1977) Playing the Game: The Homosexual Novel in America. Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs-Merrill.

Bartlett, Neil (1988) Who Was That Man? A Present for Mr Oscar Wilde. London: Serpent’s Tail.

Bartlett, Neil (1990) Ready to Catch Him Should He Fall. London: Serpent’s Tail.

Becker, Raymond de (1967) The Other Face of Love, trans. from French by Margaret Crosland and Alan Daventry. London: Neville Spearman and Rodney Books.

Berubé, Allen (1990) Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War II. New York: The Free Press.

Beurdeley, Cecile (1994) L’Amour bleu, trans. Michael Taylor. Köln: Benedikt Taschen Verlag.

Bingham, Caroline (1971) ‘Seventeenth century attitudes toward deviant sex’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 1, 447-68.

Bleys, Rudi C. (1996) The Geography of Perversion: Male-to-male Sexual Behavior outside the West and the Ethnographic Imagination 1750-1918. London: Cassell.

Boon, L. J. (1989) ‘Those damned sodomites: Public images of sodomy in the eighteenth century Netherlands’, in Gerard and Hekma, The Pursuit of Sodomy, 237-48.

Boswell, John (1980) Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Boswell, John (1989) ‘Revolutions, universals, and sexual categories’, in Duberman et al., Hidden from History, pp. 17-36.

Boswell, John (1992, 1990) ‘Categories, experience and sexuality’, in Stein, Forms of desire, 133-73.

Boswell, John (1995, 1994) The Marriage of Likeness: Same-sex Unions in Pre-modern Europe. London: HarperCollins.

Bourne, Stephen (1996) Brief Encounters: Lesbians and Gays in British Cinema 1930-1971. London: Cassell.

Bradby, Barbara (1993) ‘Lesbians and popular music: Does it matter who is singing?’, in Griffin, Outwrite, 148-71.

Bray, Alan (1982) Homosexuality in Renaissance England. London: Gay Men’s Press.

Bronski, Michael (1984) Culture Clash: The Making of Gay Sensibility. Boston: South End Press.

Brown, Judith C. (1986) Immodest Acts: the Life of a Lesbian Nun in Renaissance Italy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brown, Judith C. (1989) ‘Lesbian sexuality in medieval and early modern Europe’, in Duberman et al., Hidden from History, pp. 67-75.

Bullough, Vern L. (1976) Sexual Variance in Society and History. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Burg, B. R. (1984) Sodomy and the Pirate Tradition: English Sea Rovers in the Seventeenth-Century Caribbean. New York and London: New York University Press.

Burg, B. R. (1985, 1980) ‘Ho hum, another work of the Devil: Buggery and sodomy in early Stuart England’, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past, 69-78.

Burns, Robert (1976) ‘"Queer doings": Attitudes towards homosexuality in 19th century Canada’, Body Politic, Our Image No. 6 (December-January), 4-7.

Burton, Peter (1977) ‘The gentle art of confounding naffs: Some notes on polari’, Gay News, 120, 23.

Carpenter, Edward (1906) Ioläus: An Anthology of Friendship, 2nd ed. (enlarged). London: George Allen & Unwin.

Carpenter, Edward (1984) Selected Writings, Volume 1: Sex, ed. David Fernbach and Noel Greig. London: Gay Men’s Press.

Case, Sue-Ellen (1993) ‘Toward a butch-femme aesthetic’, in Abelove et al., The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, 294-306.

Castle, Terry (1995) ‘Sister-Sister: Jane Austen’s Letters’, London Review of Books, 3 August; report by Barry Hugill, ‘Sex and sexuality: The new key to readings of "gay" Jane Austen’, Observer, 6 August; Letters, London Review of Books, 24 August.

Chauncey, George, Jr. (1985) ‘Christian brotherhood or sexual perversion? Homosexual identities and the construction of sexual boundaries in the World War One era’, Journal of Social History, 19, 189-211.

Chauncey, George (1994) Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940. New York: BasicBooks.

Collis, Rose (1994) Portraits to the Wall: Historic Lesbian Lives Unveiled. London: Cassell.

Conner, Randolph P. Lundschen, David Hatfield Sparks and Mariya Sparks (1997) Encyclopaedia of Queer Myth, Symbol, and Spirit. London: Cassell.

Core, Philip (1984) Camp: The Lie That Tells the Truth. London: Plexus.

Corker, Mairian (1996) Deaf Transitions: Images and Origins of Deaf Families, Deaf Communities and Deaf Identites. London: Jessica Kingsley.

Cooper, Emmanuel (1994) The Sexual Perspective: Homosexuality and Art in the Last 100 Years in the West, 2nd ed. London and New York: Routledge.

Cowan, Thomas (1988) Gay Men and Women Who Enriched the World. William Mulvey; Boston: Alyson, 1992.

Creed, Gerald W. (1994) ‘Sexual subordination: Institutionalized homosexuality and social control in Melanesia’, in Goldberg, Reclaiming Sodom, pp. 66-94.

Crompton, Louis (ed.) (1978) ‘Jeremy Bentham’s Essay on "Paederasty"‘, Journal of Homosexuality, 3, 383-405; 4, 91-107.

Crompton, Louis (1985) ‘The myth of lesbian impunity: Capital laws from 1270 to 1791’, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past, 11-25 (orig. pub. 1980).

Crow, Christine (1990) Miss X, or The Wolf Woman. London: Women’s Press.

Dall’Orto, Giovanni (1989) ‘"Socratic love" as a disguis for same-sex love in the Italian Renaissance’, in Gerard and Hekma, The Pursuit of Sodomy, 33-65.

Daniel, Marc (1991) ‘Arab civilization and male love’, trans. Winston Leyland, in Leyland, Gay Roots, 33-75.

Darnton, Robert (1996) The Forbidden Best-Sellers of Pre-Revolutionary France. London: HarperCollins.

Davidson, Arnold (1987) ‘Sex and the emergence of sexuality’, Critical Inquiry, 14 (Autumn), 16-48, reprinted in Stein, Edward (ed.), Forms of desire (1992, 1990), 89-132.

Davis, Madeline and Kennedy, Elizabeth Lapovsky (1986) ‘Oral history and the study of sexuality in the lesbian community: Buffalo, New York, 1940-1960’, Feminist Studies, 12, 1 (Spring), 7-28.

D’Emilio, John (1985) Review of Jeffrey Weeks’s Coming Out, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past (1985), 218-19 (orig. pub. 1980).

D’Emilio, John (1992) Making Trouble: essays on gay history, politics, and the university. New York and London: Routledge.

Donoghue, Emma (1993) Passions Between Women: British lesbian culture 1668-1801. London: Scarlet Press.

Dover, K. J. (1978) Greek Homosexuality. London: Duckworth.

Duberman, Martin (1991) About Time: Exploring the Gay Past, rev. ed. Penguin, Meridian, 1991 (orig. pub. 1986).

Duberman, Martin, Vicinus, Martha, and Chauncey, Jr., George (eds) (1989) Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past. Penguin Meridian.

Dynes, Wayne R. (ed.) (1990) Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 2 vols. Chicago and London: St James Press.

Dynes, Wayne R. (1992, 1990) ‘Wrestling with the social boa constructor’, in Stein, Forms of desire, 209-38.

Dynes, Wayne R. and Donaldson, Stephen (eds) (1992) History of Homosexuality in Europe and America. New York and London: Garland Publishing.

Eglinton, J. Z. (pseudonym) (1971) Greek Love. London: Neville Spearman.

Elliman, Michael, and Roll, Frederick (1986) The Pink Plaque Guide to London. London: GMP.

Epstein, Steven (1987) ‘Gay politics, ethnic identity: The limits of social constructionism’, Socialist Review, 93/94 (May-August 1987), 9-54, reprinted in Stein, Forms of desire (1992, 1990), 239-93.

Eriksson, Brigitte (1985) ‘A lesbian execution in Germany, 1721: The trial records’, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past (1985), 27-40 (orig. pub. 1980).

Faderman, Lillian (1981; 1985) Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love between Women from the Renaissance to the Present [1981]. Repr. Women’s Press, 1985.

Faderman, Lillian (1985) Scotch Verdict: Miss Pirie and Miss Woods v. Dame Cumming Gordon. London: Quartet Books, 1985 (orig. pub. 1983).

Faderman, Lillian (ed.) (1994) Chloe Plus Olivia: An Anthology of Lesbian Literature from the Seventeenth Century to the Present. New York: Viking Penguin.

Fletcher, Lynne Yamaguchi and Saks, Adrien (eds) (1990) Lavender Lists. Boston: Alyson.

Foster, Jeannette H. (1956) Sex Variant Women in Literature. New York: Vantage Press.

Foucault, Michel (1976; 1978) ‘The perverse implantation’, The History of Sexuality, Volume I (Gallimard, 1976; Random House, 1978), reprinted in Stein, Forms of desire (1992, 1990), 11-23.

Foucault, Michel (1978) The History of Sexuality, Volume I: An Introduction, trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Pantheon.

Foucault, Michel (1991) The Foucault Reader, ed. Paul Rabinow. London: Penguin Books.

Fryer, Jonathan (1993) Eye of the Camera: A Life of Christopher Isherwood. London: Allison & Busby.

Garber, Eric (1991) ‘T’aint nobody’s bizness: Homosexuality in 1920s Harlem’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, 141-7.

Garde, Noel I. (pseud. of Edgar Leoni) (1964) Jonathan to Gide: The Homosexual in History. New York: Vantage.

Gardiner, James (1992) A Class Apart: The Private Pictures of Montague Glover. London: Serpent’s Tail.

Gerard, Kent and Hekma, Gert (eds) (1989) The Pursuit of Sodomy: Male Homosexuality in Renaissance and Enlightenment Europe. New York: Harrington Park Press.

Gilbert, Arthur N. (1985a) ‘Conceptions of homosexuality and sodomy in Western history’, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past (1985), 57-68 (orig. pub. 1980).

Gilbert, Arthur N. (1985b) Review of Jeffrey Weeks’s Coming Out, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past (1985), 214-16 (orig. pub. 1980).

Goldberg, Jonathan (ed.) (1994) Reclaiming Sodom. New York and London: Routledge.

Goodich, Michael (1979) The Unmentionable Vice: Homosexuality in the Later Medieval Period. Santa Barbara CA and Oxford: ABC-Clio.

Grahn, Judy (1984) Another Mother Tongue: Gay Words, Gay Worlds, updated and expanded edition. Boston: Beacon Press.

Greenberg, David F. (1988) The Construction of Homosexuality. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Griffin, Gabriele (1993a) ‘History with a difference: Telling lesbian herstories’, in Griffin, Outwrite, 48-67.

Griffin, Gabriele (ed.) (1993b) Outwrite: Lesbianism and Popular Culture. London and Boulder, Colorado: Pluto Press.

Haeberle, Erwin J. (1985) ‘"Stigmata of degeneration": Prisoner markings in Nazi concentration camps’, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past, 135-9 (orig. pub. 1980).

Hacking, Ian (1986) ‘Making up people’, from Heller, Thomas et al. (eds), Reconstructing Individualism: Autonomy, Individuality and the Self in Western Thought (Stanford University Press, reprinted in Stein, Forms of desire (1992, 1990), 69-88.

Hall, Richard (1993) ‘In quest of Klaus Mann’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, Vol. 2, 18498.

Hallam, Paul (1993) The Book of Sodom. London and New York: Verso.

Halperin, David M. (1989) ‘Sex before sexuality: Pederasty, politics, and power in classical Athens’, in Duberman et al.,

Halperin, David M. (1993) ‘Is there a history of sexuality?’, in Abelove et al., The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, 416-31.

Hidden from History, pp. 37-53.

Halsband, Robert (1973) Lord Hervey: Eighteenth-Century Courtier. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hastie, Nicki (1993) ‘Lesbian bibliomythography’, in Griffin, Outwrite, 68-85.

Hay, Bob, ‘The Sodomites’ Guide to Colonial Sydney’, Internet Website <http://lemon.rainbow.net.au/fabfanny/bhay/>.

Healy, Murray (1996) Gay Skins: Class, Masculinism, and Queer Appropriation. London: Cassell.

Herdt, Gilbert (ed.) (1994) Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History. New York: Zone Books.

Higgins, Patrick (ed.) (1993) A Queer Reader. London: Fourth Estate.

Higgins, Patrick (1996) Heterosexual Dictatorship: Male Homosexuality in Post-war Britain. London: Fourth Estate.

Hinsch, Bret (1990) Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China. Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press.

Hirschfeld, Magnus (1922) Sexualpathologie, Vol. II: Sexuelle Zwischenstufen: Das männliche Weib und der weibliche Mann. Bonn.

Howes, Keith (1993) Broadcasting It: An Encyclopaedia of Homosexuality on Film, Radio and TV in the UK 1924-1993. London: Cassell.

Huussen Jr., Arend H. (1989) ‘Sodomy in the Dutch Republic during the eighteenth century’, in Duberman et al., Hidden from History, 141-9.

Hyde, H. Montgomery (1970) The Other Love: A Historical and Contemporary Survey of Homosexuality in Britain. London: William Heinemann.

Ihara Saikaku (1990) The Great Mirror of Male Love, trans. with introd. Paul Gordon Schalow. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Isherwood, Christopher (1977) Christopher and His Kind, 1929-1939. London: Eyre Methuen.

Jeffreys, Sheila (1989, 1993) ‘Butch and femme: Now and then’, in Lesbian History Group, Not a Passing Phase, 158-87 (earlier version pub. 1987).

Jeffreys, Sheila (1989, 1993) ‘Does it matter if they did it?’, in Lesbian History Group, Not a Passing Phase, 19-28 (orig. pub. 1984).

Johnson, Pam (1989, 1993) ‘Edith Simcox and heterosexism in biography: a lesbian-feminist exploration’, in Lesbian History Group, Not a Passing Phase, 55-76.

Kaplan, Fred (1992) Henry James: The Imagination of Genius. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Karlen, Arno (1971) Sexuality and Homosexuality. London: Macdonald.

Karlinsky, Simon (1991) ‘Russia’s gay history and literature from the eleventh to the twentieth centures’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, 81-104.

Katz, Jonathan (1975) Coming Out: A Documentary Play about Gay Life and Liberation in the United States of America. New York: Arno Press.

Katz, Jonathan (1976) Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.

Katz, Jonathan Ned (1994) ‘The age of sodomitical sin, 1607-1740’, in Goldberg, Reclaiming Sodom, pp. 43-58.

Kennedy, Elizabeth Lapovsky and Davis, Madeline (1992) ‘"They was no one to mess with": The construction of the butch role in the lesbian community of the 1940s and 1950s’, in Nestle, The Persistent Desire, pp. 62-79.

Kennedy, Hubert C. (1985) ‘The "third sex" theory of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs’, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past, 103-11 (orig. pub. 1980).

Kenny, Maurice (1991) ‘Tinselled bucks: An historical study in Indian homosexuality’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, 113-23.

Kitzinger, Jenny and Kitzinger, Celia (1993) ‘"Doing it": Representations of lesbian sex’, in Griffin, Outwrite, 9-25.

Klaich, Dolores (1974) Woman Plus Woman: Attitudes Toward Lesbianism. New York: Simon and Schuster (London: New English Library, 1975).

Koski, Fran and Maida Tilchen (1975) ‘Some Pulp Sappho’, in Lesbian Feminist Writing and Publishing, special issue of Margins Magazine, No. 8.

Lacey, Edward A. (1991) ‘Latin America: Myths and realities’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, 481-502.

Lauritsen, John, and Thorstad, David (1974) The Early Homosexual Rights Movement (1864-1935). New York: Times Change Press.

Lautmann, Rüdiger (1985) ‘The pink triangle: The persecution of homosexual males in concentration camps in Nazi Germany’, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past, 141-160 (condensed from Seminar: Gesellschaft und Homosexualität, 1977).

Legg, W. Dorr (ed.) (1994) Homophile Studies in Theory and Practice. San Francisco: ONE Institute Press and GLB Publishers.

Lesbian History Group (ed.) (1989) Not a Passing Phase: Reclaiming Lesbians in History 1840-1985. London: Women’s Press.

Leyland, Winston (ed.) (1991) Gay Roots: Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine, An Anthology of Gay History, Sex, Politics and Culture. San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press.

Leyland, Winston (ed.) (1993) Gay Roots: An Anthology of Gay History, Sex, Politics and Culture, Volume 2. San Franciso: Gay Sunshine Press.

Licata, Salvatore J. (1985) ‘The homosexual rights movement in the United States’, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past, 161-89 (orig. pub. 1980; partly based upon a doctorial dissertation of 1978).

Licata, Salvatore J., and Petersen, Robert P. (eds) (1985) The Gay Past: A Collection of Historical Essays. New York and Binghamton: Harrington Park Press. (Also pub as Historical Perspectives on Homosexuality, 1981; orig. pub. as Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 6, Nos 1/2 (Fall/Winter 1980)).

Lister, Anne (1988) I Know My Own Heart: The Diaries [1817-1824] of Anne Lister (1791-1840), ed. Helena Whitbread. London: Virago.

Lister, Anne (1992) No Priest But Love: Excerpts from the Diaries of Anne Lister, 1824-1826, ed. Helena Whitbread. Otley, West Yorkshire: Smith Settle.

Lumsden, Andrew (1982) ‘Down at the old Piano-Zinc, or how to reclaim your gay culture’, Gay News, 242, p. 31.

Lynch, Michael (1976) ‘A gay world after all: Marsden Hartley (1877-1943)’, Body Politic, Our Image No. 6 (December-January), 1-2.

MacCowan, Lyndall (1992) ‘Re-collecting history, renaming lives: Femme stigma and the feminist seventies and eighties’, in Nestle, The Persistent Desire, pp. 299-328.

McIntosh, Mary (1968) ‘The homosexual role’, Social Problems, 16 (Fall), 182-92, reprinted in Stein, Forms of desire (1992, 1990), 25-42.

Marcus, Eric (1992) Making History: The Struggle for Gay and Lesbian Equal Rights 1945-1990. New York: HarperCollins.

Marwick, Arthur (1989) The Nature of History, 3rd ed. London: Macmillan.

Meer, Theo van der (1989) ‘The persecutions of sodomites in eighteenth-century Amsterdam: Changing perceptions of sodomy’, in Gerard and Hekma, The Pursuit of Sodomy, 263-307.

Miller, Carl (1996) Stages of Desire. London: Cassell.

Miller, Elaine (1989, 1993) ‘Through all changes and through all chances: The relationship of Ellen Nussey and Charlotte Brontë’, in Lesbian History Group, Not a Passing Phase, 29-54.

Miller, Neil (1995) Out of the Past: Gay and Lesbian History from 1869 to the Present. Vintage.

Miller, Stephen D. (ed.) (1996) Partings At Dawn: An Anthology of Japanese Gay Literature. San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press.

Mills, Richard (1991) ‘The German Youth Movement (Wandervogel)’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, 149-76.

Minakata Kumagusu and Iwata Jun’ichi (1996) ‘Morning fog (correspondence on gay lifestyles’, trans. William F. Sibley, in Miller, Partings At Dawn, pp. 135-71.

Mitzel, John (1993) ‘Wit vs the Ward-Heelers’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, Vol. 2, 153-66.

Monter, E. William (1985) ‘Sodomy and heresy in early modern Switzerland’, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past, 41-53 (orig. pub. in French 1974).

Mott, Luiz and Assunçao, Aroldo (1989) ‘Love’s labors lost: Five letters from a seventeenth-century Portuguese sodomite’, in Gerard and Hekma, The Pursuit of Sodomy, 91-101.

Murray, Stephen O. (1989) ‘Homosexual acts and selves in early modern Europe’, in Gerard and Hekma, The Pursuit of Sodomy, pp. 457-77.

Nanda, Serena (1993) ‘Hijras as neither man nor woman’, in Abelove et al., The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, 542-52.

Nestle, Joan (ed.) (1992) The Persistent Desire: A Femme–Butch Reader. Boston: Alyson Publications.

Newton, Esther (1984) ‘The mythic mannish lesbian: Radclyffe Hall and the New Woman’, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 9, 4, 557-75.

Newton, Huey (1991) ‘On gay liberation’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, 207-8.

Ng, Vivien W. (1989) ‘Homosexuality and the state in late Imperial China’, in Duberman et al., Hidden from History, pp. 76-89.

Noordam, Dirk Jaap (1989) ‘Sodomy in the Dutch Republic, 1600-1725’, in Gerard and Hekma, The Pursuit of Sodomy, 207-28.

Norton, Rictor (1974a) The Homosexual Literary Tradition: An Intepretation. New York: Revisionist Press.

Norton, Rictor (1974b) ‘The phoenix of Sodom’, Gay News, 47, 12.

Norton, Rictor (1975) ‘Ganymede raped: Gay literature – the critic as censor’, in Young, Ian, The Male Homosexual in Literature: A Bibliography (Metuchen, NJ: Scarcrow Press), 193-205.

Norton, Rictor (1992) Mother Clap’s Molly House: The Gay Subculture in England 1700-1830. London: Gay Men’s Press.

Norton, Rictor (1993a) ‘Hard gemlike flame: Walter Pater and his circle’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, Vol. 2, 199-206.

Norton, Rictor (1993b) ‘The historical roots of homophobia’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, Vol. 2, 69-90.

Norton, Rictor (1993c) ‘The Passions of Michelangelo’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, Vol. 2, 147-52.

Norton, Rictor (1993c) ‘Reflections on the gay movement’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, Vol. 2, 93-100.

Norton, Rictor (ed.) (1998) My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters Through the Centuries. San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press.

Norton, Rictor and Crew, Louie (eds) (1974) The Homosexual Imagination, special issue of College English, 36, 3 (November).

Oaks, Robert F. (1978) ‘"Things fearful to name": Sodomy and buggery in seventeenth-century New England’, Journal of Social History, 12, 268-81.

Padgug, Robert (1976) Review of Vern Bullough’s Sexual Variance in Society and History, Body Politic, Our Image No. 6 (December-January), 11.

Padgug, Robert (1979) ‘Sexual matters: On conceptualizing sexuality in history’, Radical History Review 20 (Spring/Summer), 3-23, reprinted in Stein, Forms of desire (1992, 1990)), 43-67.

Paglia, Camille (1994) Vamps & Tramps. New York: Vintage Books.

Parker, Peter (1989) Ackerley: A Life of J. R. Ackerley. London: Constable.

Parker, William (1985) ‘Homosexuality in history: An annotated bibliography’, in Licata and Petersen, The Gay Past, 191-210 (orig. pub. 1980).

Plummer, Kenneth (ed.) (1981) The Making of the Modern Homosexual. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble.

Plummer, Kenneth, Sexual Stigma. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975.

Power, Lisa (1996) No Bath But Plenty of Bubbles: The London Gay Liberation Front 1970-73. London: Cassell.

Proust, Marcel (1929) Cities of the Plain, trans. C. K. Scott Moncrieff. London: Chatto & Windus, 1929.

Reade, Brian (ed.) (1970) Sexual Heretics: Male Homosexuality in English Literature from 1850 to 1900. New York: Coward-McCann.

Reeder, Greg, ‘Tomb of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep’, Internet Website <http://www.sirius.com/~reeder/niankh.html>.

Reeder, Greg (1993) ‘United for eternity’, KMT: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, 4, 1, 22.

Rey, Michel (1985) ‘Parisian homosexuals create a lifestyle, 1700-1750: The police archives’, Eighteenth-Century Life, 9, 179-91.

Rey, Michel (1989) ‘Police and sodomy in eighteenth-century Paris: From sin to disorder’, in Gerard and Hekma, The Pursuit of Sodomy, 129-46.

Rich, Adrienne (1993) ‘Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence’ (orig. pub. 1982), in Abelove et al., The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, 227-54.

Richards, Dell (1990) Lesbian Lists. Boston: Alyson.

Rocke, Michael J. (1989) ‘Sodomites in fifteenth-century Tuscany: The views of Bernardino of Siena’, in Gerard and Hekma, The Pursuit of Sodomy, 7-31.

Rubin, Gayle S. (1993) ‘Thinking sex: Notes for a radical theory of the politics of sexuality’, in Abelove et al., The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, 3-44.

Ruggiero, Guido (1985) The Boundaries of Eros: Sex Crime and Sexuality in Renaissance Venice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Russo, Vito (1987) The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies. New York: Harper & Row, rev. ed. (orig. 1981).

Rutledge, Leigh W. (1987) The Gay Book of Lists. Boston: Alyson.

Rutledge, Leigh W. (1988) Unnatural Quotations. Boston: Alyson.

Rutledge, Leigh W. (1989) The Gay Fireside Companion. Boston: Alyson.

Saslow, James M. (1986) Ganymede in the Renaissance: Homosexuality in Art and Society. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Saslow, James M. (1989) ‘Homosexuality in the Renaissance: Behavior, identity, and artistic expression’, in Duberman et al., Hidden from History, pp. 90-105.

Schalow, Paul Gordon (1996) ‘Introduction’, in Miller, Partings At Dawn, pp. 11-19.

Schalow, Paul Gordon (1996) ‘Introduction: The Invention of a Literary Tradition of Male Love’, in Miller, Partings At Dawn, pp. 97-102.

Scott, Joan W. (1993) ‘The evidence of experience’, in Abelove et al., The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, 397-415.

Shively, Charley (1991) ‘Big Buck & Big Lick: Abe Lincoln & Walt Whitman’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, 125-37.

Shively, Charley (1993) ‘George Washington’s gay mess: Was the "father of our country" a queen?’, in Leyland, Gay Roots, Vol. 2, 11-68.

Siffre, Labi (1996), interviewed by Philip Reay-Smith, ‘The private life of Labi Siffre’, Pink Paper, 29 November 1996.

Simpson, Mark (ed.) (1996) Anti-Gay: Homosexuality and Its Discontents. London: Cassell.

Sinfield, Alan (1994) The Wilde Century: Effeminacy, Oscar Wilde and the Queer Moment. London: Cassell.

Skinner, Gifford (1978) ‘Cocktails in the Bath’, Gay News 135, 21-4; ‘The Spittoon Waltz’, Gay News 140, 17-20.

Smith, Timothy d’Arch (1970) Love in Earnest: Some Notes on the Lives and Writings of English ‘Uranian’ Poets from 1889 to 1930. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Smyth, Cherry (1996) Damn Fine Art. London: Cassell.

Spencer, Colin (1995a) Homosexuality: A History. London: Fourth Estate.

Spencer, Colin (1995b) ‘Pride & prejudice’ (interview), Gay Times, October, 59-60.

Steakley, James D. (1989) ‘Sodomy in Enlightenment Prussia: From execution to suicide’, in Gerard and Hekma, The Pursuit of Sodomy, 163-75.

Stein, Edward (ed.) (1992, 1990) Forms of desire: Sexual orientation and the social constructionist controversy. New York and London: Routledge, 1992 (Garland, 1990).

Stein, Edward (1992, 1990) ‘Conclusion: The essentials of constructionism and the construction of essentialism’, in Stein, Forms of desire, 323-53.

Stein, Edward (1992, 1990) ‘Introduction’ to Forms of desire, 3-9.

Stradling, Matthew (1995) ‘Flesh & pearls’, interview, Rouge, 20, 22-5.

Suárez Sánchez, Juan A. (1995-96) ‘Writing AIDS/reading history: AIDS, metaphor, and the historical imagination’, Stylistica, Monográfico sobre Cultura Homosexual, 4, 49-59.

Summers, Claude J. (ed.) (1995) The Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage. New York: Henry Holt.

Sutherland, Alistair, and Anderson, Patrick (eds) (1963), Eros: An Anthology of Male Friendship. New York: Citadel (orig. London: Anthony Blond, 1961).

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Table of Contents

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CITATION: Rictor Norton, A Critique of Social Constructionism and Postmodern Queer Theory, "References", 1 June 2002, updated 19 June 2008 <http://www.rictornorton.co.uk/social99.htm>

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